Basic Facts About DC Motors
The DC motor is a type of electrical machine that converts direct current electrical power into mechanical power. Common DC motors depend on the forces created by magnetic fields. Most DC motors contain a type of internal mechanism that is electromechanical or electronic and produces rotary motion.
These motors were the first type to be widely used as they could be powered from direct-current lighting power distribution systems that already existed.
The speed of these motors is controlled by using a variable supply voltage or by altering the current’s strength in the field windings.
A DC electromagnetic motor has a coil of wire to generate an electromagnetic field corresponding to the coil’s center. With high levels of power, they are most often cooled by forced air.
When external power is applied to a DC motor, it serves as a DC generator. This is a feature used to slow down and recharge batteries on on electric and hybrid cars.
The brushed DC electric motor produces torque directly from DC power that is given to the motor by implementing internal commutation, stationary magnets and rotating electrical magnets.
A brushed DC motor’s biggest advantage is its low initial cost. It is also very reliable and controlling the motor speed is easy with this type of motor.
The common brushless DC motor will use one or more permanent magnets in the motor. The brushless DC motor is often used because of its longevity, it requires minimal maintenance, and its high efficiency.
There are some types of DC motors that do not demand any commutation.
- Permanent magnet stator. This type of motor does not include a field winding on the stator frame. It depends on permanent magnets to initiate the magnetic field.
- Electromagnets connected in a series motor. This motor connects the armature and field windings in a series with a common power source. Series motors cannot be used where a constant speed is required under varying loads.
- Shunt motor or Wound Stator. This type of motor’s field is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature windings. The shunt-connected motor is popular because it provides good speed regulation. The field winding can be separately excited or connected to the same source as the armature. It is often used for industrial, adjustable speed applications.
- Compound DC motor. This motor connects the armature and field windings in a shunt with a series combination to create characteristics of both a shunt and a series DC motor. This combination provides better starting torque and better speed regulation.
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